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Does bank competition matter for performance and risk-taking? empirical evidence from BRICS countries

Syed Moudud-Ul-Huq (Department of Business Administration, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh)

International Journal of Emerging Markets

ISSN: 1746-8809

Article publication date: 30 March 2020

Issue publication date: 1 June 2021




This study examines the relationship between banks' competition performance and risk-taking behavior concerning the impacts of bank size and the recent global financial crisis. The analysis empirically uses dynamic panel data from 1137 banks of the BRICS countries (i.e. Brazil Russia India China and South Africa) for the period 2000–2015.


Dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM) has been used primarily to examine the effect of bank competition on performance and risk-taking. Later the paper validates the core results by using three-stage least squares (3SLS) and incorporating alternative measure of competition in baseline equations.


This study confirms the significant impact of competition that complies with the structure-conduct-performance hypothesis quiet life hypothesis and “competition fragility” view. However, the key robust results are as follows: (1) in competitive markets large banks are more efficient than small banks; (2) there is a nonlinear relationship between competition performance and risk; (3) across bank size competition heterogeneously affects profitability efficiency risk and stability; (4) notably small banks are as efficient as large banks during crisis but shared with risk; and (5) small banks also stable during crisis in highly concentrated markets but less stable in competitive environments.

Practical implications

This study promotes higher market power for the bank's profitability and financial stability. More intently policymakers should nurture both cost and revenue efficiency for large banks as these are less efficient than small banks in concentrated markets though these banks produce risk. Hence those banks should be cautious to minimize non-performing loans and maximize stability regarding financial and efficiency. Based on the nonlinear pattern of competition the regulators should adopt different policies for short and long run. It also recommends encouraging commercial and cooperative banks in the BRICS region as these are more efficient risk-averse and better stabilized than other types of banks.


A good number of studies are available in the current literature which examines the impact of bank competition on either bank performance or risk-taking in a single country or cross country analysis. However, very few studies examine the relationship between bank performance and risk-taking behavior concerning the impacts of competition (non-linear and quadratic) size financial crisis and ownership structure together. Moreover, there is a dearth of literature on this topic that built on BRICS economies.



Disclosure statement: No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


Moudud-Ul-Huq, S. (2021), "Does bank competition matter for performance and risk-taking? empirical evidence from BRICS countries", International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 409-447.



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