To read this content please select one of the options below:

Balancing transactional and transformational leadership

Saša Baškarada (Defence Science and Technology Group, Melbourne, Australia)
Jamie Watson (Defence Science and Technology Group, Canberra, Australia)
Jason Cromarty (Defence Science and Technology Group, Canberra, Australia)

International Journal of Organizational Analysis

ISSN: 1934-8835

Article publication date: 10 July 2017




This paper aims to explore how situational variables jointly affect the choice of leadership style.


This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews conducted with 11 senior leaders in the Australian Defence, including with the Chief of Defence Force.


The paper identifies four organizational factors (human capital, performance, time orientation and risk appetite) and two environmental factors (risk and stability) that are considered to have an effect on leader’s choice of transactional versus transformational styles. Furthermore, organizational human capital and leader’s training and experience are identified as prerequisites of leadership ambidexterity.


The findings explain how the choice of leadership style is contingent on internal and external factors, identifies several new contributing factors and explains how such factors may jointly affect the choice of leadership style.



Baškarada, S., Watson, J. and Cromarty, J. (2017), "Balancing transactional and transformational leadership", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 506-515.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017, Commonwealth of Australia

Related articles