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Democracy, political freedom and health expenditures: evidence from Eastern Mediterranean countries

Ali Kazemi Karyani (Department of Health Management and Economics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)
Enayatollah Homaie Rad (Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran)
Abolghasem Pourreza (Department of Health Economics and Management, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)
Faramarz Shaahmadi (Department of educational health and health promotion, Tehran University of medical science, Tehran, Iran)

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare

ISSN: 2056-4902

Article publication date: 21 September 2015

Abstract

Purpose

Health can be influenced by many factors. One of the factors is the political context of the country and democracy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of freedom in press and polity index in overall, public, private and out of pocket health expenditures.

Design/methodology/approach

A long-term panel data approach has been used to examine the relationship between democracy and health expenditures. The authors inserted polity and freedom into press indexes in the health expenditure model.

Findings

Increase in freedom of the press and democracy will increase the overall, public and private health expenditures while they decrease out of pocket health expenditures.

Originality/value

Polity and freedom index has a significant impact on all the health expenditure models.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

EHA initiated the idea of the study and gathered data and analyzed the model. AKK reviewed the literature and found the most appropriate variables for the model. FS wrote the paper and APR supervised the study.

Citation

Kazemi Karyani, A., Homaie Rad, E., Pourreza, A. and Shaahmadi, F. (2015), "Democracy, political freedom and health expenditures: evidence from Eastern Mediterranean countries", International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, Vol. 8 No. 3, pp. 187-194. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHRH-01-2015-0001

Publisher

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Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited