Factors affecting rentals of residential apartments in Pune, India: an empirical investigation

Harish Kumar Singla (School of General Management, National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune, India)
Priyanka Bendigiri (School of Projects, Real Estate and Infrastructure Management, National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune, India)

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis

ISSN: 1753-8270

Publication date: 4 November 2019



The purpose of this paper is to find out the factors affecting rentals of residential apartments in Pune, India.


Four regression models are developed, i.e. basic ordinary least square (OLS) regression model, OLS regression model with robust estimates, OLS regression model with clustered robust estimates and generalized least square (GLS) regression model with maximum likelihood (ML) robust estimates. Based on the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion criteria, OLS regression model with clustered robust estimates and GLS regression model with robust estimates are best fit. The data are tested for multicollinearity and the models are tested for heteroscedasticity. The study uses the expected rent value data collected from Web portals and the data on factors affecting the rental value of residential property are collected through the study of land use maps, Google earth software and field visits.


Total floor area and number of rooms are structure related factors that positively affect the rental value, i.e. more the area and number of rooms, higher the rental value. The distances from the nearest police station and fire station are security and safety factors. The results suggest that higher distance from these factors leads to lower rental values, as safety and security is the top priority of residents seeking residential property on rental basis. The distance from employment zones, distance from nearest school/college and the distance from the nearest public transport terminal are convenience related factors that negatively affect the rental value, as greater the distance, lesser the rental value and vice versa. The distance from Central Business District and hospitals has a positive effect on the rental values of a residential property implying that higher distances from these places command higher rental value.

Research limitations/implications

The study relies on rental data that owner is expecting for a particular property, it is not certain that the property would be actually rented for the same value. Second, researchers had to drop certain important drivers of rental value because of the issue of multicollinearity.

Practical implications

This is one of the rare studies conducted in Indian context, and the findings of the study are useful from the owner, tenants, urban bodies and developers’ point of view. Knowing that India is one of the fastest growing markets and need for housing is increasing day by day (including housing facility on rental basis), the stakeholders need to take care of the factors that affect the rental values of a residential property.

Social implications

The authors suggest the governments and the municipal bodies in India to come up with a public rental housing policy that separately caters to the needs of the lower income group, middle and upper income group in at least metros, tier I and tier II cities that are witnessing unprecedented growth in job seeking immigrants, who are seeking properties on rental basis. While developing a public rental policy, they must keep in mind the factors that are driving the rental values, such as proximity to employment zones, proximity to proper school and college, efficient public transport system as well as all safety and security measures. Creation of such a public rental policy is a win–win situation for immigrants, property owners and government/urban development bodies.


This paper is the first empirical study about the factors affecting rental values in Pune, India. The study will help property owners, immigrant and local tenants, government and urban development bodies to develop an understanding about the important factors affecting rental value and come up with their respective plans. Advanced econometric regression models are used based on the data that is collected through actual field visits, study of maps and secondary information rather than use of survey method or creation of dummy variables.



Singla, H.K. and Bendigiri, P. (2019), "Factors affecting rentals of residential apartments in Pune, India: an empirical investigation", International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, Vol. 12 No. 6, pp. 1028-1054. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHMA-12-2018-0097

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