The primary purpose of this study is to identify whether there is a price premium and consumers’ preferences for higher housing density, and whether there is a relationship between housing densities and sales prices. The second purpose was to identify if there is a non-linear relationship between housing density and prices even though housing density is directly associated with housing prices.
This paper applies hedonic modeling techniques to measure the value of development density of apartments in the metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea. The regression of the sale price is a function of different types of variables such as density, market, location and other control variables.
For the first question, this paper concludes that the higher densities cause housing prices to decrease in Seoul. The summary of the results presents that housing density, floor area ratio (FAR), building coverage ratio and floor level are all important components affecting housing prices. Generally, consumers tend to buy housing with central heating systems, more parking spaces, smaller portion of rental housing within an apartment and buildings that have more of a mixed-use function. Consumers are also found to pay higher premiums for housing in areas with high population growth and less housing supply. It is conclusive that people are inclined to live in populated areas but do not want more density. For the second question, the results show that generally FAR has quadratic effects, but most housing density variables tend to have a non-linear relationship depending on the different quantile groups.
There is a knowledge gap in the area of estimating development density of apartments. Generally, studies investigating property value impacts of multifamily housing focus on external effects of the multifamily housing on home values to examine whether high density development could result in a decrease in nearby property values. These studies found that there are some positive effects. A study found that high-density housing increases property values of existing single-family homes (Joint Center for Housing Studies, 2011). More specifically, developments that are of a high design quality and superior landscaping increase values of single-family homes as well. Also, those residents who live in these high-density apartments can be good potential buyers for the existing single-family homes. The greater the number of buyers, the greater the housing market becomes. Similarly, according to a report by the Joint Center for Housing Studies (2011) at Harvard University, the presence of multifamily residents correlates with higher home values in “working communities”. Indeed, density can be an important factor determining value of apartments because of its unique characteristics. However, no empirical evidence has been provided in the literature with regard to the value of the development density. This study contributes toward improving this knowledge gap.
Lee, J. (2016), "Measuring the value of apartment density? The effect of residential density on housing prices in Seoul", International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 483-501. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHMA-08-2015-0047Download as .RIS
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