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Different strokes for different folks: The job satisfaction of the self-employed and the intersection of gender and migration background

Teita Bijedić (Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM), Bonn, Germany)
Alan Piper (International Institute for Management and Economic Literacy, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany)

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship

ISSN: 1756-6266

Article publication date: 28 June 2019

Issue publication date: 20 August 2019




Migrant enterprises comprise about 10 per cent of all enterprises in Germany and are therefore a crucial part of the German economy and its entrepreneurial ecosystems. Relatedly, migrant entrepreneurship is a highly recognized topic within political discussions as well as within entrepreneurship research. While there is already an impressive body of work regarding the nature and quality of migrant enterprises, many questions regarding the personal motives and satisfaction of migrant entrepreneurs still remain unanswered, particularly with regards to their job satisfaction. Thus, this study aims to address such questions regarding the job satisfaction of entrepreneurs with different backgrounds.


Using the German Socio-Economic Panel data set, the authors close this research gap by investigating the job satisfaction of migrant entrepreneurs in Germany compared with native entrepreneurs.


First generation migrants show, in general, less job satisfaction than the native population. Second generation male migrant entrepreneurs’ show less job satisfaction; however, this association is reversed for females: second generation female migrant entrepreneurs are more satisfied with their self-employment than their native counterparts.


These differing results lead to differing implications for policymakers who wish to create and develop entrepreneurial and labour market support for different target groups.



Bijedić, T. and Piper, A. (2019), "Different strokes for different folks: The job satisfaction of the self-employed and the intersection of gender and migration background", International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 227-247.



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