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Oil price, energy consumption and CO2 emissions as growth determinants: a PVAR system GMM approach

Temitope Abraham Ajayi (Teesside International Business School, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, UK)

International Journal of Energy Sector Management

ISSN: 1750-6220

Article publication date: 30 April 2024

36

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to revisit the empirical debate about the asymmetric relationship between oil prices, energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in a panel of 184 countries from 1981 to 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

A relatively new research method, the PVAR system GMM, is applied.

Findings

The outcome of the PVAR system GMM model at the group level in the study suggests that oil prices exert a positive but statistically insignificant effect on economic growth. Energy consumption is inversely related to economic growth but statistically significant, and the correlation between CO2 emissions and economic growth is negative but statistically insignificant. The Granger causality test indicates that oil prices, CO2 emissions, oil rents, energy consumption and savings jointly Granger-cause economic growth. A unidirectional causality runs from energy consumption, savings and economic growth to oil prices. At countries’ income grouping levels, oil prices, oil rent, CO2 emissions, energy consumption and savings jointly Granger-cause economic growth for the high-income and upper-middle-income countries groups only, while those variables did not jointly Granger-cause economic growth for the low-income and lower-middle-income countries groups. The modulus emanating from the eigenvalue stability condition with the roots of the companion matrix indicates that the model is stable. The results support the asymmetric impacts of oil prices on economic growth and aid policy formulation, particularly the cross-country disparities regarding the nexus between oil prices and growth.

Originality/value

From a methodological perspective, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the study is the first attempt to use the PVAR system GMM and such a large sample group of 184 economies in the post-COVID-19 era to examine the impacts of oil prices on countries’ growth while controlling for other crucial variables, which is noteworthy. Two, using the World Bank categorisation of countries according to income groups, the study adds another layer of contribution to the literature by decomposing the 184 sample economies into four income groups: high-income, low-income, upper-middle-income and lower-middle-income groups to investigate the potential for asymmetric effects of oil prices on growth, the first of its kind in the post-COVID-19 period.

Keywords

Citation

Ajayi, T.A. (2024), "Oil price, energy consumption and CO2 emissions as growth determinants: a PVAR system GMM approach", International Journal of Energy Sector Management, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJESM-09-2023-0013

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2024, Emerald Publishing Limited

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