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Incident command training: the introspect model

Katherine Jane Lamb (Incident Command Development, Oxfordshire Fire & Rescue Service, Oxford, UK)
Jim Davies (Incident Command Development, Oxfordshire Fire & Rescue Service, Oxford, UK)
Richard Bowley (Incident Command Development, Oxfordshire Fire & Rescue Service, Oxford, UK)
John-Paul Williams (Oxfordshire Fire & Rescue Service, Oxford, UK)

International Journal of Emergency Services

ISSN: 2047-0894

Article publication date: 7 October 2014




The purpose of this paper is to present the use of simulation in both the development and assessment of Fire & Rescue Service incident commanders. Continuous development and assessment is required due to a reduction in incident numbers causing skill fade.


This paper details the development and implementation of the “Introspect model” of assessment by Oxfordshire Fire & Rescue Service (OFRS) over a five-year time-span, and discusses its key findings in line with current decision-making ideologies and principles.


The “Introspect model” provides a unique assessment and development tool, which adheres to current national guidelines. It is also an accredited component of incident commander development within OFRS. The authors propose that this model becomes “best practice” for other Fire and Rescue Services.

Practical implications

The national use of the “Introspect model” will ensure that all incident commanders benefit from understanding the rationale behind their decisions, striving towards a universal state of unconscious competence within incident command nationally on the fire-ground.


The originality/value of this paper lies in an in-depth analysis of simulation-based software for the development and assessment of incident commanders. This paper is the first to suggest a model of “best practice” regarding the assessment and development of Fire and Rescue Service incident commanders.



Jane Lamb, K., Davies, J., Bowley, R. and Williams, J.-P. (2014), "Incident command training: the introspect model", International Journal of Emergency Services, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 131-143.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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