To read this content please select one of the options below:

A measurement instrument for implementing total quality management in Greek primary and secondary education

Eleni Sfakianaki (School of Social Sciences, Hellenic Open University, Patras, Greece)

International Journal of Educational Management

ISSN: 0951-354X

Article publication date: 8 July 2019




Primary and secondary education (P&SE) is fundamentally important for achieving a high-quality education system. P&SE delivers more extensive social returns than higher education and is perhaps the most important locus where core values are established and the foundation for educational super-systems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a structured approach for the implementation of total quality management (TQM) in P&SE and validate it empirically.


A 7-dimensioned and a 66-itemed instrument was developed and administered to education professionals at Greek P&SE institutions to measure TQM implementation at present and its potential for the future. The measures were tested for validity and reliability.


The findings confirmed that the instrument developed is both valid and reliable. The factors of TQM identified for P&SE were leadership, student focus, continuous improvement, process control and involvement, education and training, measurement and evaluation, and change management.

Practical implications

P&SE institutions can employ the instrument developed to guide their implementation of TQM practices. Researchers and practitioners can use it to build models to relate facilitating practices to quality performance while enhancing social empowerment and contributing to economic growth, particularly at times of economic difficulty.


The present study adds value to the existing literature by investigating the unexplored field of TQM in P&SE at a time of economic downturn by offering researchers and practitioners a starting point to identify areas that require further support and improvement or have potential efficiency gain.



Sfakianaki, E. (2019), "A measurement instrument for implementing total quality management in Greek primary and secondary education", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 33 No. 5, pp. 1065-1081.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles