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Teachers’ perceptions on inclusion in basic school

Ana Lucia Manrique (Mathematics Education Program, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Ely A.T. Dirani (Department of Engineering, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Annie F. Frere (Department of Engineering, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Geraldo E. Moreira (Public Management Program, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil)
Pedro M. Arezes (Research Center ALGORITMI, School of Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal)

International Journal of Educational Management

ISSN: 0951-354X

Article publication date: 4 February 2019




Despite dealing with special educational needs (SEN) students, many teachers feel unprepared for this task. This situation reveals the urgent need for studies in different areas, directed toward the inclusion of students in regular classrooms. Therefore, a diagnosis about the situation of inclusive education and the resources available in schools offering regular teaching becomes of paramount importance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present the results of an investigation that sought information on pedagogical work in inclusive education and in the use of support materials by teachers of basic education in Brazil and Portugal.


In order to carry out this investigation, a questionnaire was developed by a partnership between researchers from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, Brazil and the University of Minho, Portugal, and applied to mathematics teachers. The study participants consisted of 197 mathematics teachers, working in primary school, secondary school and young people and adult education. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire, available online and designed in Google Forms, with 48 questions (both open and closed formats).


From the results obtained, there is a clear need not only for promoting initial and further teacher training that takes into consideration the profile of this teacher, but also for promoting the development of support materials (games, software, devices and assistive technology) in a collaborative way, involving users, teachers, engineers in a way to ensure a good usability and adequate adaptability. Thus, the inclusion of SEN students in schools must not take place only with their physical integration, but also must consider their integration at social, emotional and educational levels.


It is understood that the teacher should receive a solid training in successful inclusion experiences in terms of technological, educational and didactic experiences. Another problem that seems to be recurrent is that support materials have been developed in a way that is somehow disconnected from the reality of the classroom. The context in which the support material is inserted is fundamental to the success of its utilization. What is more, it cannot be isolated from the individuals who will use it. It thus becomes urgent to prepare the school environment for the reality of inclusion. This involves aspects from changes in infrastructure and development of assistive technology to assist the student with SEN in their learning, to the establishment of public policies that involve teacher initial and further training, specialized support and curricular discussions.



Manrique, A.L., Dirani, E.A.T., Frere, A.F., Moreira, G.E. and Arezes, P.M. (2019), "Teachers’ perceptions on inclusion in basic school", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 409-419.



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Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

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