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Integrating “self-efficacy” theory to the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) model to reveal factors that influence inclusive engagement within local community festivals

Allan Jepson (Department of Marketing and Enterprise, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK)
Alan Clarke (Department of Tourism, University of Pannonia, Veszprem, Hungary)
Gillian Ragsdell (School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK)

International Journal of Event and Festival Management

ISSN: 1758-2954

Article publication date: 14 October 2014




This study lies within “classical discourse” (Getz, 2010) within festival studies as its context is firmly situated within cultural anthropology and sociology. Unlike previous studies this research is unique in that it integrates social cognitive theory (SCT) which is usually found in psychology discourses. The purpose of this paper is to propose how the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) model would benefit from integrating self and group efficacy theory. It achieves this by building on previous analysis of primary data collected in the field at the Utcazene, Street Music Festival, Veszprem, Hungary, (Jepson et al., 2013) using an adapted MOA model.


This paper analyses previous studies which have tested the MOA model through primary data collection. Following this analysis best practice is and similarities are identified through discussion; then a case is then made to adapt the model to integrate and test Bandura's (1986) concept of self-efficacy based on the benefits it could provide to future research within community festivals and events.


This paper has been framed by initial research by Jepson et al. (2013) and Hung et al. (2011) which after analysis revealed that the MOA model was still lacking in its ability to reveal “why” local people were motivated or empowered to engage in the planning of community festivals and events. It has become evident through discussion that measuring self-efficacy has much to contribute in regards to community engagement in the event planning process; moreover there is strong evidence to support its inclusion within the MOA model. It could be used to further inform on the synergy within and between the three disciplines underpinning the model such as the relationship between knowledge, opportunity and ability, as well as reveal new ones between self-efficacy and knowledge, opportunity and ability.

Research limitations/implications

This is a conceptual paper and therefore is based on theoretical discussion but not on empirical data collected in the field of event studies.


Very few studies have engaged measurement of community participation within festivals and events. This study is original as it is interdisciplinary and investigates the concerns the roles local community take (as stakeholders), meanings (how local community culture is represented within the festival) and impacts (internal and external festival impacts and how these effect the local community) through established planning frameworks and SCT.



Jepson, A., Clarke, A. and Ragsdell, G. (2014), "Integrating “self-efficacy” theory to the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) model to reveal factors that influence inclusive engagement within local community festivals", International Journal of Event and Festival Management, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 219-234.



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