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Measures of success for self-employed mothers in Spain

Patricia Gabaldon (Department of Economic Environment, IE Business School, Madrid, Spain)
Celia De Anca (Centre for Diversity Management, IE Business School, Madrid, Spain)
Concepcion Galdón (Department of Entrepreneurship, IE Business School, madrid, Spain)

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research

ISSN: 1355-2554

Article publication date: 2 March 2015




The purpose of this paper is to investigate alternative measures to better understand and measure success for self-employed mothers in addition to the usual financial indicators.


The present study is a comparative analysis of time spent at work and undertaking childcare by female workers with children in Spain between 2009 and 2010, using a combination of descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis based on the Time-Use Survey 2009-2010.


The results of the paper indicate that self-employed working mothers tend to spend more time with their children when these are under the age of ten, and that they work longer hours than salaried mothers.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has some limitations due to the quantitative approach to secondary data. Further qualitative research could clarify some of the findings; moreover the study is based on Spain, so extending to other countries would help validate the results.

Social implications

Policy makers, in general – but more specifically in high unemployment scenarios – can facilitate self-employment for both men and women to reduce unemployment and to offer workers the prospect of a more balanced life.


This research contributes to the existing literature, which fosters a more holistic approach to the analysis of female-run ventures by measuring performance using not only economic indicators, but also personal achievements.



Gabaldon, P., De Anca, C. and Galdón, C. (2015), "Measures of success for self-employed mothers in Spain", International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 128-145.



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