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Values and career behaviours of entrepreneurs and employees

Anita Gaile (Riga International School of Economics and Business Administration, Riga, Latvia)
Ilona Baumane-Vitolina (Global Economics Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia)
Erika Sumilo (Faculty of Business, Management and Economics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia)
Daina Skiltere (University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia)
Ricardo Martin Flores (Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia)

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research

ISSN: 1355-2554

Article publication date: 8 January 2020

Issue publication date: 14 October 2020




The purpose of this paper is to determine the differences in the values and behaviours of employees and entrepreneurs and to develop guidelines for employers to foster entrepreneurial thinking in their organisations.


To determine individual behaviours, the authors used the career adaptability scale developed by Savickas and Porfelli (2012), complemented with the statements regarding relationships in the workplace and reward, designed by Gattiker and Larwood (1986). The individual values were evaluated by Schwartz’s individual value framework. The career success of individuals was defined by income level and job satisfaction. Data from a sample of 473 respondents were analysed using structural equation modelling.


This paper reveals that there are differences in the behaviours and the values of employees and entrepreneurs. Employees are more concerned with relationships at the workplace, rewards and confidence, whereas entrepreneurs focus solely on relationships. Self-direction value has a direct positive impact. Universalism, conformism, achievement, stimulation and safety have indirect positive effects on career success for employees. There is no specific individual value driving career success for entrepreneurs.


This paper follows the recent trends in organisational culture development whereby organisations seek to incorporate the entrepreneurial mindset at all levels of the organisation. Until now, there has been scarce empirical evidence on the differences between entrepreneurial and employee values. This research provides evidence that the value gap between these two distinct groups is considerable enough to question the ability of the average employee to adopt the entrepreneurial behaviour required by modern organisations.



The research has been supported by the European Regional Development Fund post-doc research support No.


Gaile, A., Baumane-Vitolina, I., Sumilo, E., Skiltere, D. and Flores, R.M. (2020), "Values and career behaviours of entrepreneurs and employees", International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Vol. 26 No. 7, pp. 1607-1625.



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