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Holistic configural models for sustainable entrepreneurs

Kun-Huang Huarng (National Taipei University of Business, Taipei, Taiwan)
Tiffany Hui-Kuang Yu (Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan)

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research

ISSN: 1355-2554

Article publication date: 19 August 2021

Issue publication date: 20 January 2022




This research explores causal combinations (personal traits, external factors and self-fulfillment) that could provide holistic views leading to sustainable start-ups via data collected from Taiwanese entrepreneurs.


The authors employ five-point Likert scale measurements in the questionnaires and fuzzy-set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) for the investigation.


The study finds four types of sustainable entrepreneurs. Conservative resilient entrepreneurs have an absence of both openness and neuroticism. Conservative achieving entrepreneurs have an absence of openness and the presence of conscientiousness. Conservative-hired entrepreneurs have an absence of both openness and unemployment. Lastly, conservative opportunistic entrepreneurs exhibit an absence of openness and the presence of business opportunity.


The results add to the authors’ knowledge and understanding of the entrepreneurship literature and also offer implications for people who are interested in entrepreneurship as well as to policymakers wanting to promote new start-ups.



This paper forms part of a special section “Innovation and Governance for Sustainable Growth (ACIEK)”, guest edited by Alba Yela Aránega and Rafael Castaño Sánchez.

The authors are grateful to the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC under grant MOST 109-2410-H-141-009.


Huarng, K.-H. and Yu, T.H.-K. (2022), "Holistic configural models for sustainable entrepreneurs", International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 67-82.



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