To read this content please select one of the options below:

The co-creation of social ventures through bricolage, for the displaced, by the displaced

Cherry W.M. Cheung (London South Bank University, London, UK)
Caleb Kwong (Essex Business School, University of Essex, Colchester, UK)
Humera Manzoor (Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan)
Mehboob Ur Rashid (University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan)
Charan Bhattarai (School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK)
Young-Ah Kim (University of Essex, Loughton, UK)

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research

ISSN: 1355-2554

Article publication date: 3 June 2019

Issue publication date: 5 August 2019




Although scholars have investigated how social entrepreneurs create and develop social enterprises in the penurious stable environment, how they are created in the penurious unstable environment has yet been overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap by exploring how internally displaced individuals, despite the lack of resources, create and develop a social enterprise to serve the other displaced population in the war and conflict zones.


Underpinned by a biographical research design, in-depth interviews with internally displaced individuals who have created social enterprises in the war and conflict zones were undertaken. Three social entrepreneurs were chosen for this study from three different social enterprises that are created by internally displaced individuals to serve the other internally displaced people of three different countries, namely, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.


The single and cross-case analysis found that internally displaced individuals deploy bricolage strategy, for example, reconfiguration of pre-existing resources and competencies (both internal and external), to start up a social venture in the war and conflict zones. They utilise pre-existing internal resources, mainly human capital, and external resources, through a frugal approach towards resources acquisitions. The authors also found that the displaced social entrepreneurs utilise resources of other displaced individuals, for example, networks, volunteers, local knowledge and financial supports mainly from older arrivals, and develop their own enterprise ecosystem within the host location to co-create and co-develop social enterprise and social values for all of them.

Research limitations/implications

The findings show that internally displaced individuals utilise bricolage strategies to create and develop socially entrepreneurial venture to serve other internally displaced individuals in the war and conflict zones. As the findings are based on three case studies, for confirmatory approach, a quantitative study with a large sample size is necessary. Furthermore, as the differences in economic, cultural and linguistic in between the home and host locations can have impact on the creation and the development of a social venture, they should be considered in the future studies.


This study contributes to the limited literature and studies on social entrepreneurship, specifically, to the context of unstable penurious environment. It also contributes to the literature on bricolage by extending its application from penurious stable environment to the penurious unstable environment. By exploring what and how internal and external resources are utilised to create and develop a socially entrepreneurial venture in a war and conflict zones, this study has added value to the literature on not only bricolage but also entrepreneurship in war and conflict zones.



Cheung, C.W.M., Kwong, C., Manzoor, H., Rashid, M.U., Bhattarai, C. and Kim, Y.-A. (2019), "The co-creation of social ventures through bricolage, for the displaced, by the displaced", International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Vol. 25 No. 5, pp. 1093-1127.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles