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Time poverty in Egypt and Tunisia: is there a gender gap?

Asmaa Ezzat (Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt)
Hanan Nazier (Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt)

International Journal of Development Issues

ISSN: 1446-8956

Article publication date: 28 August 2019

Issue publication date: 20 September 2019



The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender differences in time poverty in two Middle East North African (MENA) countries, particularly Egypt and Tunisia, as well as examining its determinants across gender.


To this end, the authors make use of data provided by the Labor Market Panel Survey (LMPS) in Egypt (2012) and in Tunisia (2014) to estimate probit regressions to identify various determinants that explain time poverty.


The empirical findings show that the probability of time poverty, in both countries, is lower for women compared to men. In addition, the determinants of time poverty (individual, household and community variables) and their marginal effects differ across gender.


Research on the gender inequalities in time poverty and its determinants has been very limited. Additionally, the relationships between individuals’ time use and the conditions under which this might represent time poverty have not been fully studied in the literature. Moreover, most of the available studies have focused on developed countries; while studies tackling this issue in developing countries are very few. For the MENA region, in particular, this topic is totally missing in the available literature.



Funding: This study was funded by Economic Research Forum (grant number 2017-028).

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Ezzat, A. and Nazier, H. (2019), "Time poverty in Egypt and Tunisia: is there a gender gap?", International Journal of Development Issues, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 261-289.



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