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Golf destinations’ brand personality: the case of the Algarve

Rosaria Luisa Gomes Pereira (School of Management, Hospitality and Tourism, University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal)
Antónia Correia (CEFAGE, Faculty of Economics, University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal)
Ronaldo L.A. Schutz (School of Management, Hospitality and Tourism, University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal)

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research

ISSN: 1750-6182

Article publication date: 1 June 2015




The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a measurement brand personality scale for golf destinations and simultaneously to assess the destination personality of the Algarve as a golf destination.


A set of 36 unrepeated items, generated from individual interviews with experts in tourism and golf in the Algarve and from promotional texts in golf-related websites, was the base for a survey instrument. The survey was applied to a convenient sample of 600 golf players in the Algarve, and 545 (valid) questionnaires were analysed to refine the scale. Golf players assessed the Algarve as a golf destination and the components of the relational brand personality (functional, symbolic and experiential). Two multi-dimensional brand personality models were estimated by using structural equation modelling.


Findings indicate that golf players ascribe personality characteristics to destinations. The brand personality of the Algarve is translated into three main dimensions enjoyableness, distinctiveness and friendliness when tourists/golf players reveal their overall perception of the destination. The brand personality of golf destination Algarve is reflected in the dimensions reliability, hospitality, uniqueness and attractiveness when tourists/golf players assess the components of the relational brand personality. Refined scales consisting of 10 and 11 items were finally derived meeting both reliability and validity requirements.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis is based on personality perceptions of only one golf destination. Another limitation is the fact that both interviewees and respondents had great difficulty in expressing themselves tending to use repeated words. Also, the fact that the research was conducted in two languages since translation and retroversion of the items may lead to some loss in meaning or sense. Moreover, the experiential component of the relational brand personality might have been further explored to relate golf destination brand personality to the tourist experience.

Practical implications

Important contributions are that both qualitative and quantitative approaches should be used in the measurement of brand personality. A reliable and valid tool to assess golf destination brand personality is a valuable marketing management resource.

Social implications

Destination managers will be able to plan marketing actions that will help to change general destination attitudes and product-destination attitudes, establishing the destination brand and creating differentiation, resulting in increased preference and usage, higher emotional ties, trust and loyalty towards the brand. Also, marketers should place great emphasis on building a connection between destination personality and tourists/golf players’ self-concept.


This is one of the first pieces of research to validate a specific brand personality scale to golf destinations. Results of this study make important theoretical contributions to the understanding of brand personality in the context of tourism destinations in general, and golf destinations in particular.



Pereira, R.L.G., Correia, A. and Schutz, R.L.A. (2015), "Golf destinations’ brand personality: the case of the Algarve", International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 133-153.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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