Sweating is thermo-regulatory behaviour that occurs when a person performs vigorous activity even in cold climatic condition. One of important component of sweat is the presence of lactate. Based on climatic condition, age, gender, maturity and nature of activity level, the change in lactate concentration is inevitable. Hence, the present study is focussed on the impact of change in the lactate concentration on the moisture transmission behaviour through the clothing. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of changing lactate concentration on the moisture vapour transmission behaviour through multi-layered clothing ensembles.
For the investigation, sweat solution representing male and female sweat were taken for present study. Two different multi-layered ensembles consisting of either spacer or fleece as middle layer were considered. The water vapour permeability and drying rate test were done at standard atmospheric conditions. After testing, ANOVA analysis was done in order to determine the most significant parameters.
Fabric structure (constituent layers) behaved differently when tested individually and as the layered component with different sweat solutions. Water vapour permeability of sweat solution with higher lactate concentration was lower as compared to sweat solution with lower lactate concentration. Individual layers showed higher rate of vapour permeability with sweat solution containing lower lactate concentration as compared to multi-layered ensembles. Role of PU coated nylon fabric was predominant in case of multi-layered ensembles. Difference in transmission of sweat solution was found higher in case of uni-directional stitched multi-layer spacer ensembles whereas marginal difference was observed in case of bi-directional seamed multi-layer spacer ensemble. Drying rate of sweat containing lower concentration of lactate was higher as compared to the other sweat solution for all the selected fabrics. Density of liquid and amount of the water available for drying influenced the drying behaviour and thus accounted for difference in drying rate of sweat solution differing in the lactate concentration. The contribution percentage of layers, i.e. type of structure was higher (nearly 93–96%) compared to that of solution type (3.3–4.9%) in case of individual layers whereas in the case of the multi-layer ensembles; type of seam had maximum contribution percentage (71–77%) followed by solution type (10–15%). Type of layers had least contribution percentage (nearly 7–9%).
The findings from the study are expected to be realistic and important in designing and development of cold weather garment ensemble for different gender type depending on their activity level especially in case of military personnel and those performing combat activities.
This experimental work based will provide the insight about the behaviour of actual sweat transmission through the layered fabric ensembles and ways to prevent the accumulation of moisture near to human skin surface by manufacturing suitable design structures (in terms of layering composition and seam patterns) per the morphology and requirement of specific consumers.
Preet, A., Mukhopadhyay, A. and Midha, V.K. (2023), "Impact of varying lactate concentration in sweat on thermo-physiological comfort of multi-layered ensembles", International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, Vol. 35 No. 2, pp. 266-276. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCST-12-2021-0176
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