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Design and development of feminine reusable pad without pad holder

Sufiyan Derbew Tiku (Department of Apparel Production, Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX), Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia)

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology

ISSN: 0955-6222

Article publication date: 22 October 2019

Issue publication date: 22 April 2020




Naturally women have menstruation cycle in permanent time that is once in a month, destroying eggs and leaving the body in the form of bad blood. Girls begin their periods between the ages of 10–18. The average age is 13. Through the ages women have used different forms of menstrual protection. Women often used strips of folded old cloth (rags) to catch their menstrual blood. This old cloth is not recommended for health; in these cases, infection in the body is not friendly with the environment. By considering the above issues for women, the purpose of this paper is to design and develop a feminine reusable pad without a pad holder for economically challenged people around Ethiopian rural area where they live, well supported by the baseline survey and also with different technical tests of fabric and product in order to take care of women’s health-related issues. So a reusable pad is needed to hold off the blood, and it is necessary to change the reusable pad, at least three times a day in order to maintain proper hygiene. A proper reusable pad is made of cotton to absorb the blood, and sticker to stick the pad to the panties.


The reusable pad is developed with three different types of fabrics, forming three different layers of the product, such as 100 percent white knitted cotton, which is used as a top layer attached to the skin, which acts as an absorbing fluid and creates comfort to the wearer, polywadding (non-woven) fabric is used at the middle layer, which is mainly used for absorbent purposes, easily washable, and retains cotton fabric shapes from deformation, and water-repellent fabric is used as the lower layer, which acts as a resistant for the blood to prevent from seepage.


This new product is developed free from different harmful chemicals and easily available in the market, and it also has good air permeability, good water absorption, comfort, cost affordable, has the best tensile strength, high capacity to hold liquid, best water repellent, and many more features. With the help of this new product, which is aimed at the middle-/lower-middle class people, it gives a lot of benefits with respect to the cost and also takes care of women’s health with all the unique features.


This is the author’s original research work, which is focused on people who lived in a rural area and were economically challenged. The reusable pad is made up of three different fabrics, such as cotton, polywadding and water repellent. Each of the materials and designs to be used is of the author’s; if it is necessary you can cross-check with other works.



First and foremost, the author would like to thank the supervisor, Dr Chandra Shekar (Assistant Professor) for this valuable guidance and advice. He inspired the author greatly to work in this research work. His willingness to motivate the author contributed tremendously to the work.

Besides, the author would like to thank the authority of Bahir Dar University – EiTEX institutes for providing a good environment and facilities to complete this research work. Also, the author would like to take this opportunity to thank all EiTEX staff, who supported directly and indirectly for the success of the work, especially textile chemistry and textile-manufacturing laboratory technical assistance, assistant lecturers and lecturers to help the author to do different tests.


Tiku, S.D. (2020), "Design and development of feminine reusable pad without pad holder", International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp. 271-283.



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Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

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