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The three–way interactions of gender, supervisor’s gender, and country on the strategies for managing conflict of millennials: an exploratory study in 10 countries

M. Afzalur Rahim (Department of Management, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA)
Jaffrey P. Katz (Department of Management, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA)
Zhenzhong Ma (Odette School of Business, University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada)
Hakan Yılmaz (Department of Business Management, Istanbul Commerce University, Istanbul, Turkey)
Hermann Lassleben (ESB Business School, Reutlingen University, Reutlingen, Germany)
Md. Sahidur Rahman (Department of Management, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh)
Maria Gabriela Silva (Business Research Unit, ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal)
Zainab Bibi (Institute of Management Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan)
Leslie J. Shaw (Department of Management, ESCP Business School, Turin, Italy)
Thomas E. Fernandez (International School of Management, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, Bangkok, Thailand)
Cathy Leung Miu Yee (Department of Management, Hang Shin Link, Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

International Journal of Conflict Management

ISSN: 1044-4068

Article publication date: 1 June 2022

Issue publication date: 26 September 2022

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Abstract

Purpose

This field study aims to investigate the interactive relationships of millennial employee’s gender, supervisor’s gender and country culture on the conflict-management strategies (CMS) in ten countries (USA, China, Turkey, Germany, Bangladesh, Portugal, Pakistan, Italy, Thailand and Hong Kong).

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study extends past research by examining the interactive effects of gender × supervisor’s gender × country on the CMS within a single generation of workers, millennials. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory–II, Form A was used to assess the use of the five CMS (integrating, obliging, dominating, avoiding and compromising). Data analysis found CMS used in the workplace are associated with the interaction of worker and supervisor genders and the national context of their work.

Findings

Data analysis (N = 2,801) was performed using the multivariate analysis of covariance with work experience as a covariate. The analysis provided support for the three-way interaction. This interaction suggests how one uses the CMS depends on self-gender, supervisor’s gender and the country where the parties live. Also, the covariate – work experience – was significantly associated with CMS.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations of this study is that the authors collected data from a collegiate sample of employed management students in ten countries. There are significant implications for leading global teams and training programs for mid-level millennials.

Practical implications

There are various conflict situations where one conflict strategy may be more appropriate than others. Organizations may have to change their policies for recruiting employees who are more effective in conflict management.

Social implications

Conflict management is not only important for managers but it is also important for all human beings. Individuals handle conflict every day and it would be really good if they could handle it effectively and improve their gains.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study has tested a three-way interaction of variables on CMS. This study has a wealth of information on CMS for global managers.

Keywords

Citation

Rahim, M.A., Katz, J.P., Ma, Z., Yılmaz, H., Lassleben, H., Rahman, M.S., Silva, M.G., Bibi, Z., Shaw, L.J., Fernandez, T.E. and Yee, C.L.M. (2022), "The three–way interactions of gender, supervisor’s gender, and country on the strategies for managing conflict of millennials: an exploratory study in 10 countries", International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 33 No. 5, pp. 762-781. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCMA-05-2021-0074

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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