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Workplace friendship in hospitality organizations: a scale development

Ece Omuris (Faculty of Tourism, Akdeniz Universitesi, Antalya, Turkey)

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management

ISSN: 0959-6119

Article publication date: 12 February 2019

Issue publication date: 30 April 2019



The purpose of this study is to explore workplace friendship in hospitality organizations and to develop an appropriate scale that combines qualitative and quantitative methods.


A mixed-methods design was selected to capitalize on the strength of both qualitative and quantitative approaches to reveal robust findings. First, in-depth interviews were carried out to determine the forms of workplace friendship. Second, an instrument was developed on the basis of the interviews, and 6 factors were extracted from exploratory factor analysis with 507 Samples-1. Third, confirmatory factor analysis with 507 Samples-2 was performed to identify the validity of the workplace friendship scale.


A 65-item, six-factor workplace friendship scale was developed. The six dimensions are trustworthiness, competency, having someone’s back, value-life interest similarity, caring personal relationships and socio-cultural similarity.

Research limitations/implications

The sampling approach may limit the generalizability of the study findings as the data were collected from Turkish employees in Turkey. Cultural differences in individual relations may affect individual approaches to workplace friendship. Therefore, future cross-cultural research with samples from different populations and workplaces would be useful to explore similarities and differences with the findings of this study and to better understand the intricate structure of friendship.


This study contributes a reliable and valid measurement scale to address workplace friendship hospitality organizations.



This paper was produced from project (number: 2013.03.0107.003) supported by The Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Akdeniz University.


Omuris, E. (2019), "Workplace friendship in hospitality organizations: a scale development", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 1390-1411.



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