To read this content please select one of the options below:

Predicting event tourists’ gambling decision: the cross-level effect of brand equity

IpKin Anthony Wong (School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China)
Hoi In Veronica Fong (School of Business, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China)
Aliana Man Wai Leong (City University of Macau, Macau, China)
Jacky Xi Li (Faculty of International Tourism and Management, City University of Macau, Macau, China)

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management

ISSN: 0959-6119

Article publication date: 22 July 2019

Issue publication date: 4 September 2019




The scant literature on MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions) tourists’ gambling behavior calls for a need to explore how their decision to gamble (hereafter, “gambling decision”) may unfold. Consequently, several questions germane to the inter-relationships among event tourists’ characteristics, casinos attributes, and gambling behaviors remain largely unaddressed. This paper aims to address the void in the literature by investigating event participants’ gambling decision.


Data were collected based on two samples, and a multilevel design was used to test the proposed model. Demographic and event-related participant characteristics were examined as antecedents of gambling decision at the individual level. Event goers’ accommodation characteristics such as brand equity and type of hotel were explored as cross-level effects on the individual-level factors and relationships.


Results of the study illustrate a joint influence – in terms of both direct and moderating effects – of individual-level and organizational-level characteristics on gambling decision. In particular, brand equity moderates the relationships leading from demographic and event-related characteristics to gambling decision.

Practical implications

The inter-relationships among events, accommodations and casinos present an opportunity for hospitality practitioners to better integrate these three services in a more coherent experiential offering for the ever-demanding MICE attendees. Findings also help practitioners to justify their targeting strategy.


The proposed framework presents the dynamic nature of the hospitality industry in which the event, hotel and casino sectors are interdependent, a picture hitherto prevented by the single-level oriented nature of gambling and hospitality research which largely focuses on the individual perspective. Given the dynamic nature of the hospitality industry, the findings elucidate a complex interdependency of customer needs.



Wong, I.A., Fong, H.I.V., Leong, A.M.W. and Li, J.X. (2019), "Predicting event tourists’ gambling decision: the cross-level effect of brand equity", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 31 No. 7, pp. 2951-2969.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles