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Farm-level cost of adaptation and expected cost of uncertainty associated with climate change impacts in major river basins in India

Kuppanan Palanisami (International Water Management Institute, Hyderabad, India)
Krishna Reddy Kakumanu (International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Hyderabad, India)
C.R. Ranganathan (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India)
Nagothu Udaya Sekhar (The Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Ås, Norway)

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management

ISSN: 1756-8692

Article publication date: 16 March 2015




Researchers and policymakers are figuring out the adaptation technologies to cope with the changing climate. Adaptation strategies for crop production followed by the farmers at selected study locations had ranged from 6-30 per cent only, and this was mainly due to lack of awareness about the actual cost associated with adaptation and non-adaptation of these strategies.


Hence, this study aims to address the cost of adaptation for rice using joint probability distribution of rainfall and crop prices.


Cost of adaptation varied from INR2,389 to 4,395/ha for System of Rice Intensification (SRI); INR646 to 1,121/ha for alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and INR8,144 to 8,677/ha for well irrigation (WI), whereas expected cost for not using these technologies has ranged from INR6,976 to 9,172/ha for SRI; INR4,123 7,764/ha for AWD and INR10,825 to 17,270/ha for WI. Hence, promotion of the adaptation technologies itself will minimize the income losses to the farmers.

Research limitations/implications

Even though, there are many ways for farmers (other than technology), to adapt to climate change (such as out-migration to cities, selling farm assets, focus on children’s education, etc.), this report, given the framework of the major research study undertaken, addresses only farm-level adaptation of the technologies to enhance farm income.


Public–private partnership in providing the technologies at cheaper costs, capacity building in handling the technologies and creating awareness about the technologies to minimize the expected cost of adaptation are suggested to improve the adoption level.



The authors wish to thank Pramod Aggarwal and Mark Giordano, IWMI, for their very useful comments and suggestions.


Palanisami, K., Kakumanu, K.R., Ranganathan, C.R. and Udaya Sekhar, N. (2015), "Farm-level cost of adaptation and expected cost of uncertainty associated with climate change impacts in major river basins in India", International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 76-96.



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