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Perception of climate change and adaptation strategies in Vietnam: Are there intra-household gender differences?

Ashok K. Mishra (Morrison School of Agribusiness, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona, USA)
Valerian O. Pede (Social Sciences Division, International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines)

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management

ISSN: 1756-8692

Article publication date: 21 August 2017




The purpose of this study is to first examine the factors affecting the intra-household perception of climate change. Second, the study investigates the impact of the perception of climatic stress on the operators’ and spouses’ intra-household adaptation strategies (farm and household financial strategies).


The study uses household survey data from Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. The study uses probit and negative binomial count data approaches to evaluate the empirical model.


Results confirm the existence of intra-household gender differences in the adaptation strategies. The authors found that although spouses perceive climatic stress, they are less likely to adapt to such stresses when it comes farming enterprise, but more likely to adapt to household financial strategies. In contrast, farm operators, in the presence of climatic stresses, undertake both farm and household finance adaptation strategies.

Practical implications

Investment in climate smart agriculture can help households in managing climatic stresses.


A farmer in Asia, and Vietnam in particular, faces significant risks from climatic changes. In Vietnam, agriculture is easily affected by natural disasters and climatic changes. This study provides insights into the perception of climatic changes by operators and spouses in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. Perceived changes in the climate have a greater impact on women because they typically lack the necessary tools to adapt to climate change. The current findings could be useful in managing climatic risk in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta and be helpful to policymakers in designing risk management strategies in response to climatic changes.



This work was implemented as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), which is carried out with support from CGIAR Fund Donors and through bilateral funding agreements. For details please visit The views expressed in this document cannot be taken to reflect the official opinions of these organizations. This study was initiated as part of the Policy Information and Response Platform on Climate Change and Rice in ASEAN and its Member Countries (PIRRCA) Project under CCAFS. Further, the authors would like to thank the Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development (IPSARD) for assisting in conducting surveys. They also would like to thank all the households who participated in the surveys, two anonymous reviewers and the editor-in-charge for helpful comments. Mishra’s time on this project was supported by the Kemper and Ethel Marley Foundation.


Mishra, A.K. and Pede, V.O. (2017), "Perception of climate change and adaptation strategies in Vietnam: Are there intra-household gender differences?", International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 501-516.



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