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Barriers to BIM for facilities management adoption in Nigeria: a multivariate analysis

Dubem Isaac Ikediashi (School of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK)
Otoabasi Asuquo Ansa (Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria)
Anthony Okwogume Ujene (Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria)
Sani Reuben Akoh (School of Science, Engineering and Environment, University of Salford, Manchester, UK)

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation

ISSN: 2398-4708

Article publication date: 7 December 2022




Building information modelling (BIM) has been established in the literature as a successful platform that creates an intelligent virtual model for processing data from conceptual design through construction to operational stage of a facility. However, its adoption for facilities management (FM) provision in Nigeria has been slow due to inherent barriers. The aim of this paper is to (1) assess and categorise using factor analysis BIM for FM barriers and (2) model the barriers using stakeholders' personal/professional attributes.


Anchored on quantitative research design, 205 copies of structured questionnaire were distributed to key stakeholders and facilities managers in Nigeria's three strategic cities while 135 valid responses were received giving a response rate of 65.8%. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics while multiple regression analysis was used to model the barriers. Kruskal Wallis test was used to test the only hypothesis postulated for the study.


The study established lack of awareness of BIM for FM, poor supporting infrastructure for Internet services, and lack of education and training as the top three rated barriers militating against adoption of BIM for FM in Nigeria while corruption, widespread mistakes and errors and cultural issues were established as the three least rated barriers. Besides, findings also established eight underlying factors that explained 23 barrier factors used for the study which were subsequently used to develop eight regression models. In effect, gender, professional affiliation, organisation, experience, education, expertise, BIM for FM project type, and location were found to statistically predict the 8 extracted factors driving perceived barriers of BIM for FM adoption in Nigeria.

Practical implications

The study has provided a framework of barrier factors to help stakeholders identify specific barriers for which appropriate measures can be taken to ameliorate consequences of the perceived barriers. Meanwhile, an improved and rejuvenated advocacy on inherent benefits of BIM for facilities management by frontline stakeholders could potentially steer up interests and increased participation of stakeholders on BIM for FM.


The unique study developed the first ever regression model that links BIM for FM barriers to professional attributes of facilities management stakeholders in Nigeria.



Ikediashi, D.I., Ansa, O.A., Ujene, A.O. and Akoh, S.R. (2022), "Barriers to BIM for facilities management adoption in Nigeria: a multivariate analysis", International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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