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Lattice Boltzmann simulation of convective flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid-filled hollow cavity

Qiang Pu (School of Information Science and Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, China)
Farhad Aalizadeh (Center of Excellence in Energy Conversation (CEEC), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran)
Darya Aghamolaei (Department of Medical Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran)
Mojtaba Masoumnezhad (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Chamran, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Tehran, Iran)
Alireza Rahimi (Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran)
Abbas Kasaeipoor (Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran)

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow

ISSN: 0961-5539

Article publication date: 19 July 2019

Issue publication date: 11 September 2019



This paper aims to to simulate the flow and heat transfer during free convection in a square cavity using double-multi-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method.


The double-MRT lattice Boltzmann method is used, and the natural convection fluid flow and heat transfer under influence of different parameters are analyzed. The D2Q5 model and D2Q9 model are used for simulation of temperature field and flow field, respectively. The cavity is filled with CuO-water nanofluid; in addition, the thermo-physical properties of nanofluid and the effect of nanoparticles’ shapes are considered using Koo–Kleinstreuer–Li (KKL) model. On the other hand, the cavity is included with an internal active hollow with constant thermal boundary conditions at its walls and variable dimensions. It should be noted that the dimensions of the internal hollow will be determined by as aspect ratio.


The Rayleigh number, nanoparticle concentration and the aspect ratio are the governing parameters. The heat transfer performance of the cavity has direct relationship with the Rayleigh number and solid volume fraction of CuO-water nanofluid. Moreover, the configuration of the cavity is good controlling factor for changing the heat transfer performance and entropy generation.


The originality of this work is using double-MRT lattice Boltzmann method in simulating the free convection fluid flow and heat transfer.



Pu, Q., Aalizadeh, F., Aghamolaei, D., Masoumnezhad, M., Rahimi, A. and Kasaeipoor, A. (2019), "Lattice Boltzmann simulation of convective flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid-filled hollow cavity", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 29 No. 9, pp. 3075-3094.



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