This study aims to investigate the insights of soot formation such as rate of soot coagulation, rate of soot nucleation, rate of soot surface growth and soot surface oxidation in ethylene/hydrogen/nitrogen diffusion jet flame at standard atmospheric conditions, which is very challenging to capture even with highly sophisticated measuring systems such as Laser Induced Incandescence and Planar laser-induced fluorescence. The study also aims to investigate the volume of soot in the flame using soot volume fraction and to understand the global correlation effect in the formation of soot in ethylene/hydrogen/nitrogen diffusion jet flame.
A large eddy simulation (LES) was performed using box filtered subgrid-scale tensor. A filtered and residual component of the governing equations such as continuity, momentum, energy and species are resolved and modeled, respectively. All the filtered and residual components are numerically solved using the ILU method by considering PISO pressure–velocity solver. All the hyperbolic flux uses the QUICK algorithm, and an elliptic flux uses SOU to evaluate face values. In all the cases, Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) conditions are maintained unity.
The findings are as follows: soot volume fraction (SVF) as a function of a flame-normalized length for three different Reynolds number configurations (Re = 15,000, Re = 8,000 and Re = 5,000) using LES; soot gas phase and particulate phase insights such as rate of soot nucleation, rate of soot coagulation, rate of soot surface growth and soot surface oxidation for three different Reynolds number configurations (Re = 15,000, Re = 8,000 and Re = 5,000); and soot global correction using total soot volume in the flame volume as a function of Reynolds number and Froude number.
The originality of this study includes the following: coupling LES turbulent model with chemical equilibrium diffusion combustion conjunction with semi-empirical Brookes Moss Hall (BMH) soot model by choosing C6H6 as a soot precursor kinetic pathway; insights of soot formations such as rate of soot nucleation, soot coagulation rate, soot surface growth rate and soot oxidation rate for ethylene/hydrogen/nitrogen co-flow flame; and SVF and its insights study for three inlet fuel port configurations having the three different Reynolds number (Re = 15,000, Re = 8,000 and Re = 5,000).
The authors wish to acknowledge the support received from NITT Octagon computer center (www.nitt.edu/home/students/facilitiesnservices/ComputerSupportGroup/) for providing the resources to perform the computation work, data analysis and article preparation. The authors thank Professor Bassam Dally of School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, South Australia, for kindly granting access to the experimental data of C2H4/H2/N2/air diffusion turbulent flames for soot study (www.adelaide.edu.au/cet/isfworkshop/data-sets/turbulent/).
Ibrahim N.H., M., Udayakumar, M., Suresh, S., Bhattacharyya, S. and Sharifpur, M. (2021), "Coupling LES with soot model for the study of soot volume fraction in a turbulent diffusion jet flames at various Reynolds number configurations", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 31 No. 7, pp. 2246-2278. https://doi.org/10.1108/HFF-07-2020-0458
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