Generally, in computational thermofluid dynamics, the thermophysical properties of fluids (e.g. viscosity and thermal conductivity) are considered as constant. However, in many applications, the variability of these properties plays a significant role in modifying transport characteristics while the temperature difference in the boundary layer is notable. These include drag reduction in heavy oil transport systems, petroleum purification and coating manufacturing. The purpose of this study is to develop, a comprehensive mathematical model, motivated by the last of these applications, to explore the impact of variable viscosity and variable thermal conductivity characteristics in magnetohydrodynamic non-Newtonian nanofluid enrobing boundary layer flow over a horizontal circular cylinder in the presence of cross-diffusion (Soret and Dufour effects) and appreciable thermal radiative heat transfer under a static radial magnetic field.
The Williamson pseudoplastic model is deployed for rheology of the nanofluid. Buongiorno’s two-component model is used for nanoscale effects. The dimensionless nonlinear partial differential equations have been solved by using an implicit finite difference Keller box scheme. Extensive validation with earlier studies in the absence of nanoscale and variable property effects is included.
The influence of notable parameters such as Weissenberg number, variable viscosity, variable thermal conductivity, Soret and Dufour numbers on heat, mass and momentum characteristics are scrutinized and visualized via graphs and tables.
Buongiorno (two-phase) nanofluid model is used to express the momentum, energy and concentration equations with the following assumptions. The laminar, steady, incompressible, free convective flow of Williamson nanofluid is considered. The body force is implemented in the momentum equation. The induced magnetic field strength is smaller than the external magnetic field and hence it is neglected. The Soret and Dufour effects are taken into consideration.
The variable viscosity and thermal conductivity are considered to investigate the fluid characteristic of Williamson nanofluid because of viscosity and thermal conductivity have a prime role in many industries such as petroleum refinement, food and beverages, petrochemical, coating manufacturing, power and environment.
This fluid model displays exact rheological characteristics of bio-fluids and industrial fluids, for instance, blood, polymer melts/solutions, nail polish, paint, ketchup and whipped cream.
The outcomes disclose that the Williamson nanofluid velocity declines by enhancing the Lorentz hydromagnetic force in the radial direction. Thermal and nanoparticle concentration boundary layer thickness is enhanced with greater streamwise coordinate values. An increase in Dufour number or a decrease in Soret number slightly enhances the nanofluid temperature and thickens the thermal boundary layer. Flow deceleration is induced with greater viscosity parameter. Nanofluid temperature is elevated with greater Weissenberg number and thermophoresis nanoscale parameter.
Hayath, T.B., Ramachandran, S., Vallampati, R.P. and Bég, O.A. (2021), "Computation of non-similar solution for magnetic pseudoplastic nanofluid flow over a circular cylinder with variable thermophysical properties and radiative flux", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 31 No. 5, pp. 1475-1519. https://doi.org/10.1108/HFF-04-2020-0236
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