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Co-creation solutions and the three Co’s framework for applying Co-creation

Gemma Pearce (Research Centre for Healthcare and Communities, Coventry University, Coventry, UK)
Paul Magee (Centre for Future Transport and Cities, Coventry University, Coventry, UK)

Health Education

ISSN: 0965-4283

Article publication date: 4 April 2024




A sense of collective free-thinking with tangible goals makes co-creation an enlightening experience. Yet despite the freedom and organic flow of the methodology, there remain barriers to deploying co-creation in the real-world context. The aim was to understand the barriers and solutions to co-creation, reflect on applying co-creation in practice and co-create an applicable framework for co-creation.


These reflections and conceptual developments were completed using a Participatory Action Research Approach through the co-creation of the Erasmus+ funded Co-creating Welfare course.


Results presented are centric to the experiences in the United Kingdom but led to application at an international level. Problem formulation led to solutions devised about who should co-create, what co-creation aims to achieve, how to receive management buy-in, co-creating beyond the local face to face context and evaluation.


The Three Co’s Framework is proposed using the outline of: Co-Define, Co-Design and Co-Refine. Those who take part in co-creation processes are recommended to be called co-creators, with less focus on “empowerment” and more about facilitating people to harness the power they already have. Utilising online and hybrid delivery methods can be more inclusive, especially in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of co-creation needs to be evaluated more moving forwards, as well as the output co-created.



Pearce, G. and Magee, P. (2024), "Co-creation solutions and the three Co’s framework for applying Co-creation", Health Education, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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