Measuring housing exclusion using the ETHOS typology

Gaspar Brändle (Department of Sociology and Social Work, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain)
Olga García (Department of Applied Economics, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain)

Housing, Care and Support

ISSN: 1460-8790

Publication date: 21 December 2015



The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough assessment of the current statistical sources in Spain, as well as new indicators that extend and improve the European Typology on Homelessness and Housing Exclusion (ETHOS) to better address every housing exclusion situation.


The main categories of the ETHOS typology are reviewed: definition, subcategories and the availability of data and statistical sources in Spain. The assessment of the information available is carried out by considering objective and subjective indicators. Additionally, the inclusion of new subcategories is proposed.


The strengths and weaknesses of the ETHOS model when applied in the study of housing exclusion are highlighted, and the need to have an appropriate set of indicators for measuring housing exclusion is stressed. The ETHOS typology may be the reference conceptual framework to elaborate a system of housing exclusion indicators. However, it would be necessary to extent this model in order to cover some situations of exclusion risk owing to insecure housing for economic reasons and environmental degradation, and including the subjective assessment of the people affected by these processes.


This study implements the ETHOS methodology checking the statistical information available distinguishing between objective and subjective indicators. Further, this paper shows an integrated overview of the four main ETHOS categories (rooflessness, houselessness, insecure and inadequate housing) with the four types of housing restrictions (accessibility, stability, adequacy and habitability).



Brändle, G. and García, O. (2015), "Measuring housing exclusion using the ETHOS typology", Housing, Care and Support, Vol. 18 No. 3/4, pp. 113-124.

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