This paper aims to clarify the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in human society, based on the concept of muwālāt (commonly translated as “loyalty”) in the Qurʾān.
The present study follows a contextual and analytical methodology.
This paper concludes that muwālāt is not only ideological but can be contractual too. A historical study of the Prophet’s (PBUH) interaction with non-Muslims in Mecca and Medina illustrates that as long as non-Muslims did not behave treacherously or turn to violence, a peaceful relationship was established and alliances and coalitions were formed. And this paper concludes that the categorisation of previous Muslim scholars, which was is in terms of prohibited and permitted, is inappropriate.
This paper clarifies that the categorisation of previous Muslim scholars, which was in terms of prohibited and permitted, is inappropriate, and muwālāt is not only belongs to faith.
Kanani, I., Ahmadi Ramchahi, A., Zarasi, M., Zulkifli, M.Y. and Raja Yusof, R.J. (2017), "The relationship of Muslims with non-Muslims based on the concept of
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