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Explanations about grey information and framework of grey system modeling

Naiming Xie (College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China)

Grey Systems: Theory and Application

ISSN: 2043-9377

Article publication date: 7 August 2017



The purpose of this paper is to summarize the different types of grey information, explain the mechanism of grey system modeling and reconstruct the framework of grey system theory (GST).


GST has been developed for more than three decades; however, the framework of GST is still in an evolutionary process. This manuscript first explains grey information in detail, and then summarizes a series of grey system models under limited data and poor information. Figures and general steps for different types of grey system models are provided in this paper.


The findings in this paper clearly differentiate between grey information and other uncertainty information. The differences between grey system models and other uncertainty models are clearly explained. In addition, general steps for different grey system models are given which demonstrate the orientation of grey system modeling.

Practical implications

Theoretical framework is very important for developing a new theory. This paper clarified grey information and grey system-based modeling mechanism. It is very useful to understand and explain the systematic framework of GST and it contributes undoubtedly to make GST perfect.


Grey information is explained in terms of limited data and two types of grey numbers. Accordingly, all of the grey system models were divided into limited data-based grey system models and grey number-based grey system models.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 71671090, Aeronautical Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 2016ZG52068, MOE (Ministry of Education in China) Liberal Arts and Social Sciences Foundation under Grant No. 15YJCZH189 and Qinglan Project for excellent youth or middle-aged academic leaders in Jiangsu Province (China).


Xie, N. (2017), "Explanations about grey information and framework of grey system modeling", Grey Systems: Theory and Application, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 179-193.



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