The purpose of this paper is to propose a formative assessment framework to expose individual student's cognitive learning difficulties in English public speaking. The paper aims to provide student feedback and information during the teaching and learning process. A grey student-construct (S-C) chart is developed to represent the students’ cognitive mapping of the speech difficulties in relation to their overall speech conceptualization. This grey S-C chart can facilitate the instructors to ameliorate the classroom teaching and learning performance in English public speaking.
In total, 26 students in a class of English Speech and Rhetoric participate in the experiment – each student views the online video segments of a great speaker's speech, and then decides what segments would best support the speaking skill constructs and also reflects on his/her own difficulties in the same constructs. The grey relational analysis (GRA) method is used to analyze the empirical data. The individual student's construct localization grey relation grade values are calculated to rank the grey relation for both students and constructs. Accordingly, a grey S-C matrix is constructed and a grey S-C chart can thus be developed.
The grey S-C chart manifestly displays the cognitive difficulties in sequences of both students and constructs.
According to the grey S-C chart, the instructors may modify teaching strategies to enhance the overall classroom performance. The students may adjust learning strategies to eliminate their specific difficulties. Offering individualized advanced and remedial practices to those largely deviating from the norm is also possible.
The study is the first of its kind to apply the GRA method to expose individual student's cognitive learning difficulties in English public speaking. The grey S-C chart is novel in education literature, which can reveal individual student's learning difficulty patterns.
The authors are indebted to three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and insightful suggestions, which greatly ameliorate the quality of this paper.
Joyce Lee, Y. and W. Lan, L. (2014), "Application of grey relational analysis to expose individual student's cognitive difficulties in English public speaking: A formative assessment framework", Grey Systems: Theory and Application, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 232-249. https://doi.org/10.1108/GS-04-2013-0006Download as .RIS
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited