This paper aims to examine the contextual embeddedness of female entrepreneurship through a focus on gendered institutions. Specifically, it draws upon Scott’s (1995) institutional categories and explores how the three dimensions of gendered institutions combine to explain both a high level of female total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA) rates and female/male TEA ratios (TEARs).
Collecting data from the Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, the World Economic Forum and the World Bank for 63 countries, this study uses the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) method to explore causal complexity between the regulative, normative and cognitive dimensions of gendered institutions (conditions) and the female TEA (FTEA) rates and the female/male TEARs (outcomes).
First, this study confirms the complex interactions occurring among institutional components. Second, the results highlight the key role that gender equality in entrepreneurial cognitions plays in achieving high female entrepreneurship. Third, configurations for the high FTEA rates and the female/male TEARs share a high similarity.
The study provides policymakers with a holistic paper and alternate solutions with the aim of promoting female entrepreneurship in their respective countries.
The study highlights gendered institutions beyond general institutions, enriching the literature on the gender and institutional determinants of female entrepreneurship. Furthermore, the application of the fsQCA method in the study helps to enhance the understanding of how institutional components complexly interact to shape female entrepreneurship.
Funding: the National Social Science Fund of China 16BGL025.
Li, Y., Wu, J., Zhang, D. and Ling, L. (2020), "Gendered institutions and female entrepreneurship: a fuzzy-set QCA approach", Gender in Management, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/GM-07-2019-0110Download as .RIS
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