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Relationship between new media literacy (NML) and web-based fake news epidemic control: a systematic literature review

Khurram Shahzad (Department of Library, Government College University Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan)
Shakeel Ahmad Khan (Department of Information Management, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan, Bahawalpur, Pakistan)

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication

ISSN: 2514-9342

Article publication date: 8 December 2022




This study aims to investigate the current practices being implemented against the dissemination of fake online news, identify the relationship of new media literacy (NML) with fake news epidemic control and find out the challenges in identifying valid sources of information.


To accomplish constructed objectives of this study, a systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted. The authors carried out the “Preferred Reporting Items for the Systematic Review and Meta-analysis” guidelines as a research methodology. The data were retrieved from ten world’s leading digital databases and online tools. A total of 25 key studies published in impact factor (IF) journals were included for systematic review vis-à-vis standard approaches.


This study revealed trending practices to control fake news consisted of critical information literacy, civic education, new thinking patterns, fact-checkers, automatic fake news detection tools, employment of ethical norms and deep learning via neural networks. Results of the synthesized studies revealed that media literacy, web literacy, digital literation, social media literacy skills and NML assisted acted as frontline soldiers in combating the fake news war. The findings of this research also exhibited different challenges to control fake news perils.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides pertinent theoretical contributions in the body of existing knowledge through the addition of valuable literature by conducting in-depth systematic review of 25 IF articles on a need-based topic.

Practical implications

This scholarly contribution is fruitful and practically productive for the policymakers belonging to different spectrums to effectively control web-based fake news epidemic.

Social implications

This intellectual piece is a benchmark to address fake news calamities to save the social system and to educate citizens from harms of false online stories on social networking websites.


This study vivifies new vistas via a reinvigorated outlook to address fake news perils embedded in dynamic, rigorous and heuristic strategies for redefining a predetermined set of social values.



Shahzad, K. and Khan, S.A. (2022), "Relationship between new media literacy (NML) and web-based fake news epidemic control: a systematic literature review", Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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