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Modelling energy consumption behaviour using “energy culture” concept for student accommodations in Malaysian public universities

Mohd Hafizal Ishak (Centre of Excellence for Facilities Management, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja, Malaysia)


ISSN: 0263-2772

Article publication date: 8 August 2017



In working towards a sustainable campus of public universities, energy consumption behaviour assessment is one of the several issues that requires attention by the facilities manager. Information on energy consumption behaviour is needed to determine potential energy savings. The purpose of this study is to assess energy consumption behaviour for student accommodations in Malaysian public universities.


This study focuses on developing energy consumption behaviour models (ECBMs) and assesses the potential energy savings. The “energy culture” framework consolidated with multiple regression analysis is used to strengthen the development of ECBMs. A self-administrated survey involving 1,009 respondents in selected public universities was carried out.


The result shows that five factors from the energy culture framework contribute to energy consumption behaviour, namely, building regulation, environmental concern, education, social marketing and direct factors (device and activities). These factors are included in the model for predicting energy consumption levels. The results show that there is a 78 per cent difference in energy consumption between the observed and predicted data.

Practical implications

This study indicates a high potential energy saving among students of Malaysian public universities.


The model was tested against the overall students among Malaysian public universities. In future, the model can be tested within hostel accommodations. The present assessment revealed the potential energy saving among the hostel buildings and sets the target regarding which building has a potential to reduce energy. It also helps the facilities managers to come up with strategies for programmes and energy policy in public universities.



This research was funded by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education through the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) for Mohd Hafizal B. Ishak and Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Vote No. 1604, Phase 1/2016.


Ishak, M.H. (2017), "Modelling energy consumption behaviour using “energy culture” concept for student accommodations in Malaysian public universities", Facilities, Vol. 35 No. 11/12, pp. 658-683.



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