Although 40 per cent of US managers are women, only about 5 per cent of the top level managers are women. Middle and top level women managers were surveyed by a questionnaire. Nearly all say women are under‐represented in their firms, mainly because the men at the top are reluctant to promote them. As a remedy, education was preferred over legal measures. Key barriers include: managers′ stereotypes about women′s credibility, career commitment, and decision‐making ability; various subtle forms of exclusion. Key techniques for overcoming the barriers include: skills in communicating, problem solving, decision making, motivating, delegating, and supervising; understanding the firm, its people, and its politics; co‐operating as a team member; developing personal power (poise, inner resources).
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