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Entrepreneurial intentions: The role of individualism and collectivism in perspective of theory of planned behaviour

Muhammad Farrukh (Faculty of Business and Management, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Cyberjaya, Malaysia)
Jason Wai Chow Lee (Faculty of Business and Information Science, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Muhammad Sajid (School of Management, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, UK) (Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Abdul Waheed (School of Economics and Management, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China)

Education + Training

ISSN: 0040-0912

Article publication date: 15 May 2019

Issue publication date: 13 August 2019




Culture plays a vital role in shaping individuals’ intentions and behaviour. Influence of cultural values on entrepreneurship has been acknowledged widely by academics and practitioners. However, little in terms of empirical results is known. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of cultural values on entrepreneurial intentions (EI) of Pakistani students.


Cultural values of individualism and collectivism were incorporated into the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Smart-PLS software was used to run a structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to analyse the data.


SEM results showed that attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural controls (PBC) mediated the relationship between individualism and EI while subjective norms (SN) mediated the relationship between collectivism and EI.


The study confirms the applicability of the TPB for understanding the EI in a collectivist culture. Additionally, findings of this study displayed that external factors, such as cultural values, can impact EI through SN, attitude and PBC. Incorporation of cultural values in TPB contributed to the understating of antecedents of EI.



Farrukh, M., Lee, J.W.C., Sajid, M. and Waheed, A. (2019), "Entrepreneurial intentions: The role of individualism and collectivism in perspective of theory of planned behaviour", Education + Training, Vol. 61 No. 7/8, pp. 984-1000.



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