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Job demands and resources when using technologies at work – development of a digital work typology

Caroline Ruiner (Chair for Sociology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany)
Christina Elisabeth Debbing (University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany)
Vera Hagemann (University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany)
Martina Schaper (University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany)
Matthias Klumpp (FOM University of Applied Sciences, Düsseldorf, Germany) (Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Göttingen, Gottingen, Germany)
Marc Hesenius (University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany)

Employee Relations

ISSN: 0142-5455

Article publication date: 1 September 2022

Issue publication date: 2 January 2023




Digital technologies comprehensively change work processes and working conditions. However, the use of digital technologies and the modes of collaboration between technologies and human workers differ in terms of specific work organization and automatization. Referring to the job demands-resources model (JD-R), this paper investigates job demands and resources from the workers' perspectives and develops a digital work typology according to dimensions of digitalization and forms of human–computer interaction (HCI).


The authors conducted a qualitative-empirical study with 49 interviews in four German production and logistics organizations, emphasizing different job demands and job resources for five digital work types identified.


The results indicate that job demands and resources are to be differentiated in relation to specific work contexts. In this sense, this paper presents an analysis of dimensions of technology use and the impact of technology use on working conditions through empirically analyzing job demands and resources in digital work settings.


The contribution of this paper is to empirically analyze job demands and resources in digital work settings from the workers' perspectives and to develop a digital work typology based on the dimensions of digitalization and form of HCI. This typology can set the basis for further research insights as well as management practice measures in human resources management (HRM).



This work was funded by the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in Germany (funding code EXP.00.00124.19).


Ruiner, C., Debbing, C.E., Hagemann, V., Schaper, M., Klumpp, M. and Hesenius, M. (2023), "Job demands and resources when using technologies at work – development of a digital work typology", Employee Relations, Vol. 45 No. 1, pp. 190-208.



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