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E-work evaluation through work–life balance, job effectiveness, organizational trust and flexibility: evidence from Kosovo during COVID-19

Albanë Gashi (Management and Informatics, Faculty of Economy, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtinë, Kosovo)
Enver Kutllovci (Management and Informatics, Faculty of Economy, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtinë, Kosovo)
Genc Zhushi (Economics Department, Faculty of Economy, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtinë, Kosovo)

Employee Relations

ISSN: 0142-5455

Article publication date: 18 October 2021

Issue publication date: 14 February 2022

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess e-working remotely from the perspective of online workers based on important theoretical aspects that have been found to have an impact in this regard. Specifically, the study examines the influence that work–life balance, job effectiveness, organizational trust and flexibility have on e-workers experience in terms of satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, the E-Work Life (EWL) scale, which consists of 17 questions and yields four critical dimensions, namely work–life balance, job effectiveness, organizational trust and flexibility, was adapted to measure remote e-working experience. Data were collected by sending the electronic questionnaire link to e-workers. In order to define the factorial structure and test whether the data fit the hypothesized measurement model, factor analysis was initially conducted on a sample of 230 e-workers. The relationship between EWL scale variables and e-worker experience was examined using order logit model.

Findings

This paper initially provides the validity and reliability of the EWL scale. Exploratory factor analysis optimally supported three factors and 13 items in contrast to the original scale. The influence that the remaining structure comprised of work–life balance, job effectiveness and flexibility has on e-worker experience was also measured. Results indicate that work–life balance and job effectiveness have a positive influence on e-workers satisfaction with online working, while flexibility does not show a positive association in this regard. Of the three variables, job effectiveness shows to be the most influential factor for e-worker satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

For the nature of this study, a larger sample size would have been more preferable. It must also be noted that the study took place in circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic where social activities were limited, and this could have interfered with employees' emotions to some level and ultimately with their evaluation of e-work. It is suggested that further research be conducted.

Practical implications

Owing to the increasing occurrence of these working practices worldwide, particularly with the COVID-19 situation, this study, through its' findings, contributes to a broader knowledge on successful implementation of e-work environments. It helps individuals to comprehend crucial e-work-related issues and supports organizations to identify areas for improvement, so that effective strategies can be developed to increase productivity while supporting worker's well-being and satisfaction at the same time.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a previously identified need for further validation of the newly developed EWL scale in a different setting and with a new sample. At the same time, it adds to the understanding of the impact of important dimensions previously shown to affect e-worker satisfaction with online working.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors want to express gratitude to the PhD candidates, Abetare Prebreza, Besnik Avdiaj, Elizabeta Murati, Flamur Kaçiu, Flokart Aliu, Iliriana Sopa and Vedat Morina, respectively, at the University of Prishtina, Department of Management and Informatics for their expertise and assistance provided with adopting the questionnaire and collecting the data. The authors also want to thank Professor Ymer Havolli (the University of Prishtina, Management and Informatics) for support.

Funding: The authors received no financial support for the research.

Citation

Gashi, A., Kutllovci, E. and Zhushi, G. (2022), "E-work evaluation through work–life balance, job effectiveness, organizational trust and flexibility: evidence from Kosovo during COVID-19", Employee Relations, Vol. 44 No. 2, pp. 371-385. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-04-2021-0136

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

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