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Brand addiction: conceptualization and scale development

Mona Mrad (Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon)
Charles Chi Cui (Alliance Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK)

European Journal of Marketing

ISSN: 0309-0566

Article publication date: 14 November 2017




This paper aims to develop a definition of brand addiction and a valid brand addiction scale (BASCALE).


The authors used focus-group results to define brand addiction and generate items for the BASCALE and validated the BASCALE with survey data collected in the UK.


Based on the 11 brand-addiction features found from the focus groups, the authors define brand addition as an individual consumer’s psychological state that pertains to a self-brand relationship manifested in daily life and involving positive affectivity and gratification with a particular brand and constant urges for possessing the brand’s products/services. Based on the survey study, the authors have established a valid ten-item BASCALE.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the survey’s setting in the fashion context in the UK, the authors do not intend to generalize the results to other product types and countries. Future research should replicate the BASCALE in different product categories and different countries.

Practical implications

The BASCALE can serve marketers in the behavioral segmentation and assist brand managers to identify brand addict consumers and maintain long-term relationships with them.


The authors have developed a definition of brand addiction and a valid BASCALE, which one can use for a wide range of theoretical and empirical research in the marketing and psychology fields. The definition and BASCALE also serve to differentiate brand addiction from other consumer–brand relationships and addiction constructs (e.g. compulsive buying, brand love and brand trust).



Mrad, M. and Cui, C.C. (2017), "Brand addiction: conceptualization and scale development", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51 No. 11/12, pp. 1938-1960.



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