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Innovative work behavior scale: development and validation of psychometric properties in higher education in the GCC countries

Alaa Eldin Abdel Hamid Ayoub (Gifted Education, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain) (Educational Psychology, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt)
Soud Mohammad Almahamid (Department of Innovation and Technology Management, College of Graduate Studies, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain)
Luma F. Al Salah (Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain)

European Journal of Innovation Management

ISSN: 1460-1060

Article publication date: 6 July 2021

Issue publication date: 2 January 2023




The study aims to develop an innovative work behavior (IWB) scale for the faculty members and faculty leaders of universities in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (GCC). This research is intended for assessing the level of IWB in higher education and evaluating its psychometric properties.


The study targets academic staff of universities in the GCC region, and out of 810 questionnaires that were distributed, only 773 valid responses were obtained of which 517 were responses from males and 256 from females whose ages range between 33 and 67 years.


The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used and confirmed a five-factor structural model (opportunity exploration, idea generation, idea promotion, idea realization and idea sustainability), and the model has a satisfactory fit. The scale consists of 27 items with high Cronbach's alpha value of 0.87, demonstrating good internal consistency. Preliminary results suggest that the IWB scale has adequate convergent and divergent validity.

Practical implications

The IWB scale can be a useful tool for evaluating and developing a high level of innovative work behavior that maintains university services' sustainability and increases industries' competitiveness.


This research provides insights into the importance of IWB in achieving tangible success to the educational institutions. It provides a new method to confront sudden and unexpected circumstance such as what has happened during COVID-19 pandemic.



The authors are deeply grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments and suggestions.


Ayoub, A.E.A.H., Almahamid, S.M. and Al Salah, L.F. (2023), "Innovative work behavior scale: development and validation of psychometric properties in higher education in the GCC countries", European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 119-133.



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