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Rework and schedule performance: A profile of incidence, impact, causes and solutions

Bon-Gang Hwang (Department of Building, School of Design & Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore)
Shimin Yang (Cost Control, EC Harris Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore)

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management

ISSN: 0969-9988

Article publication date: 11 March 2014



Rework is a pervasive problem in the construction industry. While several studies have examined the relationship between rework and cost overruns, few have related rework to schedule performance impacts. As a result, the purpose of this paper is to assess rework in the construction industry and its impact on schedule performance. Additionally a discussion of the most probable causes for rework that affect schedule outcomes is presented, with some recommended solutions.


To achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire was developed and the responses from 32 companies in Singapore were analyzed. Furthermore, face-to-face interviews with six industry experts were conducted to get an in-depth understanding of the survey results.


The findings of this study revealed that rework is a leading factor affecting schedule performance and its occurrence is relatively high in the construction industry, with a significant contribution to construction schedule growth. It also identified certain root causes, namely design-related changes, poor design coordination and poor site management as factors that most negatively affect schedule performance.


It is anticipated that once companies recognize the causes for rework and their impacts on schedule, they will develop strategies to manage and prevent rework, ultimately allowing the industry to improve on project delivery schedule performance.



Hwang, B.-G. and Yang, S. (2014), "Rework and schedule performance: A profile of incidence, impact, causes and solutions", Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 190-205.



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