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Window geometry impact on a room's wind comfort

Reza Fallahtafti (The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK)
Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad (Department of Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran)

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management

ISSN: 0969-9988

Article publication date: 24 March 2021

Issue publication date: 2 November 2021




Natural ventilation is an environmentally friendly effective way of improving thermal comfort and the quality of indoor conditions if applied properly. This study aims to investigate the physical mechanism of the air movement and also the influence of building geometry in a cross-ventilated room through a parametric study of window geometrical characteristics using computational fluid dynamics.


Momentum and continuity equations are solved by the control volume method using a commercially available software. Standard kɛ turbulence model is employed to simulate the incompressible airflow and SIMPLE algorithm to solve the conservation equations. Mean air velocity magnitude is measured at three different surfaces of different heights, and the effect of incoming wind velocity inside the building is studied.


The research concluded that window hood and sill projections reduce indoor wind velocity magnitude, play a major role in incoming wind direction and thus have a crucial impact on wind circulation and indoor air quality.

Social implications

The paper has evaluated redesigning of a both practical and ornamental architectural element named Palekaneh, which is found in many historical buildings in several hot places in the world. Its optimal design could increase indoor natural ventilation quality and decrease a space's cooling load. Therefore, a new passive cooling architectural element could be re-introduced to the regions previously enjoying such ornaments. This is economically efficient because it eventually saves a considerable amount of energy in the long run and is socially important because of the revitalization of architectural identity.


The role of a building envelope's physical features, although being studied for solar absorption and daylight availability, has rarely been investigated for natural ventilation, especially in a small scale, thus making the paper novel in this regard. This provides a guideline for designers to assess the impact of their design on redirecting wind-induced natural ventilation the very early stages of design.



Declaration: The paper is mainly conducted and approved to be published by the first author, Reza Fallahtafti, under the supervision of Dr. Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad in Tarbiat Modares University. Mahsa Bolorchi Tabriz was also very helpful in acquiring the data. Research material is available upon request from Reza Fallahtafti via


Fallahtafti, R. and Mahdavinejad, M. (2021), "Window geometry impact on a room's wind comfort", Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 28 No. 9, pp. 2381-2410.



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