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Evolution of ride-hailing platforms regulations in India: a multi-level perspective

Ravinder Kumar Verma (Jindal Global Business School, OP Jindal Global University, Sonipat, India)
P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan (Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India)
Arpan Kumar Kar (Department of Management Studies, School of Artificial Intelligence, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India)

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance

ISSN: 2398-5038

Article publication date: 12 March 2024

Issue publication date: 9 April 2024




Digital platforms (DP) are transforming service delivery and affecting associated actors. The position of DPs is impacted by the regulations. However, emerging economies often lack the regulatory environment to support DPs. This paper aims to explore the regulatory developments for DPs using the multi-level perspective (MLP).


The paper explores regulatory developments of ride-hailing platforms (RHPs) in India and their impacts. This study uses qualitative interview data from platform representatives, bureaucrats, drivers, experts and policy documents.


Regulatory developments in the ride-hailing space cannot be explained as a linear progression. The static institutional assumptions, especially without considering the multi-actors and multi-levels in policy formulation, do not serve associated actors adequately in different times and spaces. The RHPs regulations must consider the perspective of new RHPs and the support available to them. Non-consideration of short- and long-term perspectives of RHPs may have unequal outcomes for established and new RHPs.

Research limitations/implications

This research has implications for the digital economy regulatory ecosystem, DPs and implications for policymakers. Though the data from legal documents and qualitative interviews is adequate, transactional data from the RHPs and interviews with judiciary actors would have been insightful.

Practical implications

The study provides insights into critical aspects of regulatory evolution, governance and regulatory impact on the DPs’ ecosystem. The right balance of regulations according to the business models of DPs allows DPs to have space for growth and development of the platform ecosystem.

Social implications

This research shows the interactions in the digital space and how regulations can impact various actors. A balanced policy can guide the paths of DPs to have equal opportunities.


DP regulations have a complex structure. The paper studies regulatory developments of DPs and the impacts of governance and controls on associated players and platform ecosystems.



Verma, R.K., Ilavarasan, P.V. and Kar, A.K. (2024), "Evolution of ride-hailing platforms regulations in India: a multi-level perspective", Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, Vol. 26 No. 3, pp. 337-356.



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