The aim of this paper was to verify applicability of graphene-based sensors for voltammetric and amperometric measurements of low-concentration compounds in biological fluids.
Using the screen printing method, electrochemical sensors were manufactured on polymethylmetacrylate foil using a paste consisting of organic solvents and graphene nanopetals. As the model of a biological fluid tear film was chosen, the compound chosen as the analyte was H2O2, which is produced in oxidation of biological compounds. Tear film analog was prepared, in which, the measurements were carried out in a wide range of concentrations to determine the oxidation potential of H2O2 through square-wave voltammetry. The second series of amperometric measurements was carried out for concentrations between 0 and 30 μM/L, which is the lower range of physiological glucose concentration in tear films.
The sensors presented linearity for concentrations from 0 to 3.5 per cent. Mean linear correlation coefficient between the peak current and the concentration for the examined sensors was 0.9764. Mean sensitivity was 434.4 mA·M−1·L−1.
Results indicate a need for optimization of the sensors ' performance. Main parameters to be improved are surface area of electrodes and purity of the graphene layer, as well as uniformity of the manufacturing process to improve accuracy and repeatability of measurements.
Technology and materials used present an opportunity for creating low-cost, miniaturized and biocompatible sensors to be used in medical monitoring.
Printed electronics technology described was not investigated previously in the field of biological sensors and could contribute to the solving of vital medicine problems.
Peplowski, A., Janczak, D., Wróblewski, G., Słoma, M., Górski, Ł., Malinowska, E., Pałko, T. and Jakubowska, M. (2015), "Graphene electrodes for voltammetric measurements in biological fluids", Circuit World, Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 112-115. https://doi.org/10.1108/CW-03-2015-0012
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