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Understanding national innovation system (NIS) using porter’s diamond model (PDM) of competitiveness in ASEAN-05

Munshi Afzal (Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Labuan, Malaysia and Department of Economics, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh and Faculty of Adjunct, School of Commerce, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, Australia)
Roger Lawrey (School of Commerce, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia)
Jhalak Gope (Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh)

Competitiveness Review

ISSN: 1059-5422

Article publication date: 15 July 2019




The purpose this study is to investigate national innovation systems (NIS) using Porter’s Diamond model (PDM) by examining the five founding member nations of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, for the period 2010-2014 (WCY 2015, WDI 2015).


PDM of competitiveness helps us understanding a nation’s competitive position in world trade. In exploring the empirical relationship between NISs and PDM, a non-parametric approach has been applied using the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI). This study focused on representing the PDM in a simplified manner and endeavored to understand NIS more rigorously through PDM. The study has used several innovation input-output variables to investigate the efficiency and productivity of the countries concerned. The accuracy of the study has been enhanced by the use of MPI.


PDM is found efficacious in the practice and strengthening of NIS in the context of these countries’ competitiveness. This study found unchanged Total Factor Productivity (TFP) for Philippines, Singapore and Thailand; that is technological progress is yet to be obtained. Indonesia lags both in technical and technological progress. On the other hand, Malaysia is found to be over-using the existing input-output factors of NIS.


Many authors have attempted to measure competitiveness and NIS separately in the context of ASEAN or other South-East Asian countries. However, as yet, no empirical investigation has been conducted to assess the competitiveness of a nation by applying NIS-based analysis according to PDM.



Afzal, M., Lawrey, R. and Gope, J. (2019), "Understanding national innovation system (NIS) using porter’s diamond model (PDM) of competitiveness in ASEAN-05", Competitiveness Review, Vol. 29 No. 4, pp. 336-355.



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