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Towards a transformer transient model as a lumped-distributed parameter system

Sergey E. Zirka (Department of Physics and Technology, Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine)
Yuriy I. Moroz (Department of Physics and Technology, Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine)
Ebrahim Rahimpour (ABB AG, Bad Honnef, Germany)



The purpose of this study is to develop a topological model of a three-phase, three-limb transformer for low-frequency transients. The processes in the core limbs and yokes are reproduced individually by means of a dynamic hysteresis model (DHM). A method of accounting for the transformer tank with vertical magnetic shunts at the tank walls is proposed and tested on a 120 MVA power transformer.


The model proposed has been implemented independently in a dedicated Fortran program and in the graphical pre-processor ATPDraw to the ATP version of the electromagnetic transient program.


It was found that the loss prediction in a wide range of terminal voltages can only be achieved using a DHM with variable excess field component. The zero sequence properties of the transformer can be accurately reproduced by a duality-derived model with Cauer circuits representing tank wall sections (belts).

Research limitations/implications

In its present form, the model proposed is suitable for low-frequency studies. Its usage in the case when transformer capacitances are involved should be studied additionally.


The presented model can be used either as an independent tool or serve as a reference for subsequent simplifications.


The model proposed is aimed at meeting the needs of electrical engineering and ecology-minded customers.


Till date, there were no experimental data on zero-sequence behavior of three-phase, three-limb transformer with vertical magnetic shunts, so no verified transient model existed. The model proposed is probably the first that matched this behavior and reproduced measured no-load losses for a wide voltage range.



Zirka, S.E., Moroz, Y.I. and Rahimpour, E. (2017), "Towards a transformer transient model as a lumped-distributed parameter system", COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 741-750.



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