To read this content please select one of the options below:

On the nomological net of (non-)workaholic subtypes

Greta Ontrup (Department of Psychology and Sports Science, Psychology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany)
Justine Patrzek (Department of Psychology and Sports Science, Psychology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany)

Career Development International

ISSN: 1362-0436

Article publication date: 25 October 2019

Issue publication date: 25 October 2019




Research on workaholism distinguishes between enthusiastic and non-enthusiastic workaholics, a typology used in many studies. Yet, the methodical foundation on which the derivation of the types is based lacks robust statistical evidence. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to replicate the often-cited typology of enthusiastic and non-enthusiastic workaholics (and non-workaholic subtypes), based on model-based clustering as a robust statistical technique; and second, to validate the class solution based on affective, cognitive and behavioral measures.


The study followed a cross-sectional design, targeting a sample of people from various fields of industries. An online questionnaire was distributed; workaholism was assessed with McMillan et al.’s (2002) Work-BAT-R scales. A total of 537 respondents’ data were analyzed.


Latent profile analysis extracted four classes, namely, enthusiastic and non-enthusiastic workaholics and relaxed and uninvolved non-workaholics. As expected, workers characterized by high enjoyment (enthusiasts and relaxed) showed higher job satisfaction and occupational self-efficacy than workers with low enjoyment (non-enthusiasts and uninvolved). Relaxed workers reported higher life satisfaction than all other classes.


The robust methodology applied establishes a good starting point for future studies investigating workers subtypes: the replication suggests that the workaholic subtypes might be core profiles that occur in different populations with regularity. As a next step, the replication of the typology based on alternative operationalizations of workaholism is proposed for future studies.



The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding publication of this article. The work was not financially supported by a third party.


Ontrup, G. and Patrzek, J. (2019), "On the nomological net of (non-)workaholic subtypes", Career Development International, Vol. 24 No. 7, pp. 672-685.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles