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Employee development and employee engagement: a review and integrated model

Kibum Kwon (Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, Texas, USA)
Shinhee Jeong (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA)
Jiwon Park (Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan, Republic of Korea)
Seung Won Yoon (Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA)

Career Development International

ISSN: 1362-0436

Article publication date: 31 January 2024

Issue publication date: 30 April 2024




In response to the lack of connection between employee development and employee engagement, this study explores the existing empirical findings regarding these two concepts. Based on the conservation of resources theory, the authors propose a novel theoretical framework that can better leverage the identified antecedents and relationships for future research.


An integrative literature review of 64 empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals was conducted.


Three different levels of antecedents, including the work environment, social exchange and individual characteristics, are identified. Employee development and employee engagement exhibit reciprocal relationships. Considering the role of job performance as a catalyst, the authors propose an upward gain spiral model to advance both research and practice.


This integrative literature review aims to facilitate discussions based on three distinct sub-dimensions: physical, emotional and cognitive energies, relevant to both employee development and employee engagement. Through this distinction, a more comprehensive understanding of the connection between employee development and employee engagement can be cultivated.



Since submission of this article, the following author(s) have updated their affiliations: Shinhee Jeong is at Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, USA.


Kwon, K., Jeong, S., Park, J. and Yoon, S.W. (2024), "Employee development and employee engagement: a review and integrated model", Career Development International, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 169-184.



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